All praises and thanks to Allah the Almighty, for all the blessings He showers upon me throughout the time of my thesis work and gave me the prowess to complete my thesis successfully.
I would like to pay my special regards to my parents for their love, prayer, and sacrifices for making my future bright. I am very thankful to them for making all the efforts in completing my thesis work during the Covid-19 pandemic situation.
It would not be justice to not dedicate this to my best friend and brothers, for their constant support and trust in me, pushing me to do and complete my thesis. Without their support, this would not have been possible. For all of the motivational talks and support have to lead me to this end. Thank you for all these ones for you.
I would wish to express my sincere and deepest gratitude to my supervisor who helped me and made it possible to complete my thesis work by guiding me every step of the thesis.
Her enthusiasm, motivation, and sincerity have inspired me. It was a huge honor to work under her supervision and guidance. My special thanks to all those who participated in an online survey during this situation and made that possible for me to complete this thesis successfully.
Media nowadays provides a wide range of content and is not limited to a specific number of channels. It also shows such content which seems to be unhealthy and inappropriate for children. Media affects children’s behavior in both positive and negative ways.
Parental guidance helps children to discriminate between right and wrong acts. The major objective of this study was to investigate the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media content on children’s pro-social behavior. The present study is quantitative in nature so the online survey method was selected with a five-point Likert scale.
The instruments chosen for the study were questionnaires and the five options of each statement were: SD (Strongly Disagree) 1-SA (Strongly Agree). The questionnaire was comprised of 15 statements and administered to the parents of children. Parents were requested to watch one set of cartoons for 1 hour with their children and the other two sets were viewed alone for 3 hours.
The sample of this study was 30 children which were selected by using a convenience sampling technique. The results of adult responses were analyzed in different ways: first demographic information of children was analyzed then statement-wise analysis was done for checking hypotheses and overall statement-wise analysis was done. The results concluded that adult co-viewing and children’s media has a positive impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism.
Keywords: co-viewing, adult, media, children, pro-social, behavior, altruism
Parents in Pakistan are gradually becoming conscious about the use of multimedia and its impact on children. Nowadays cable networks are available at everybodys home and children like to watch cartoons because of its fascinating colors and use of animation.
In the 21st century, technology has introduced new electronic equipment including laptops and mobile phones, therefore; children nowadays have easy access to watch their favorite cartoons and movies on other gadgets too. The use of media is popular all over the globe but the major agenda is its impact on children’s behavior and attitude.
So, the point to ponder here is whether media creates a positive impact on children’s behavior, what affects parents’ co-viewing with their children possibly creates? Hence, in order to investigate these questions; the present study is conducted to investigate the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media consumption on their pro-social behavior and altruism.
Moreover, cartoon shows in Pakistan are mostly broadcasted either in Hindi or in the English language, and children choose to watch it in Hindi dubbing as its easier for them to understand. The accent, vocabulary, and language used in this cartoon are slang and children try to learn those new words and use them in their daily life routine, some children get angry by hearing such words and this leads to fighting between them, as a result, negative behavior is developed in children.
The industry devoted to entertainment is attacking its audience like a bomb with attractive and fascinating productions at national, global, regional, and local platforms. Media production industries from advanced countries, with their noticeable agendas, are affecting the users globally on an economic, cultural, ethical, and intellectual level, especially among those who are living in straitened circumstances, the less industrialized countries.
Underdeveloped countries depend upon media throughout the world to fulfill their enjoyment and leisure needs even without comprehending the harmful effects of media content on children being broadcasting for the sake of leisure time enjoyment and entertainment. (Water Ella, 2001).
Billions of people in the world amuse themselves by watching media on different electronic devices and bring entertainment to their lives through this industry but people are also criticizing it for causing harmful effects on their children, it devalues the historic culture and promotes paltry filthy tastes, it also harms our attention spans, moreover, it also spreads and support violence acts, and also damages the communities and audiences (Blakley, 2008).
1.1 Role of Children’s Media in Teaching-Learning Process
Research conducted by Sharmin at Michigan University concluded that young children are much more attracted to the use of cartoon content as compared to the academic conventional method of learning because scenarios are composed in an entertaining style, colors, animation, and audiovisual effects attract children.
Such factors are adequate to provoke the child is soaking up the information far well than what a child absorbs and learns by a teacher-centered approach in a classroom (Jensen, 1998).
Child’s minds always endeavors novel experiences at an early age, as a result of which we may say that animated series broadcasted by cartoon channels make toddlers glued and stick to their chairs while watching TV.
A well-composed scenario, attracting characters, and suitable audiovisual effects are all the major factors that make the child’s brain stuck for the animated hero and sufficient for his mind to begin automatically, ensuing his direction and tries to be an imitator or act like a parrot even for the minor details, including body language, thinking, talking manners and ways of dressing up (Bjorkqvist & Lagerspetz, 1985).
These are the elements that Conventional schools lack in supplying the academic content because the teacher uses face reading ques, vocal effects, and acting for those children who failed to understand the content and asked them to imagine the whole scenario.
In animated cartoon all these factors are the keystones of the content, therefore children sit long hours screening TV and follow their favorite TV show and as a result absorbs the media content much faster (Bjorkqvist & Lagerspetz, 1985).
1.2 Impact of Children’s media on their behavior
Children are mostly attracted by animation and cartoon is the only source of animated series which keeps children indulge during their leisure time. Through television, children learn most of the manners and it has a great impact on their behavior too. Children are like blank slate as John Loke said we are born tabula rasa. We learn through the observation of our surroundings and it has a huge impact on our minds and upbringing.
Negative things affect children’s behavior as he absorbs much information from an outer sources and it influences their attitude. Children’s media content affect their personality trait.
And effects may be positive or negative so, to avoid such impacts on children’s behavior parents should be aware of the information consumed by their children while watching television. Television shapes children’s behavior as they spend much of their time in front of the television.
Children generally from the age of 6th months to 3 years are dependent on cartoons and parents should be careful of what their children are consuming and observing as it is the time of mind building and their mind is only learning what is shown to them (Habib, 2015).
Those children who started watching cartoons on television at their earlier age from about six months to the age of two or three years such children become passionate viewers and the cartoons are more like family-friendly that is why the majority of people like to watch animated shows ( Ali Hassan & Muhammad Daniyal, 2013).
This has turned into a serious issue as a large number of children all over the globe are gradually becoming addicted to cartoon shows that are being broadcasted and simultaneously they are enthralling themselves being tempestuous, violent, uncontrollable, and aggressive in nature.
In the current global environment, it is very difficult to find a single television channel which is dedicated solely and purely to the children content and most of the channels are a combination of advertisements related to other things and they also do promotion of movies and dramas that are irrelevant and are not good for children’s mental development (Priyambada Tripathi, 2016).
Cartoon shows may adversely affect the children because the content drove would manipulate as well as confuses the child what he needs to experience in this real world. In the current way of living, parents are busy in their jobs and are kept up with their work thus, they spend very minimal time with their children, and as a result, kids spent much of their time in front of the television watching cartoons to entertain themselves (Khaled Habib, 2015).
The cartoon channel which is preferred by a major part of children is Cartoon Network and it is viewed by uniform kids all around the world. The children’s content media plays a major role in the positive or negative habit formation of children.
One of the most influential factors affecting children is violence, hatred, and aggression after watching cartoons. Things that are negative in children’s media content may mislead the child to question about the skills regarding patterns of growing up according to his religion and his lifestyle (Anton-Aluja Fabregat & Rafael-Torrubia Beltri, 1997).
1.3 Impact of adult co-viewing and monitoring
The overarching goal of parental media supervision is to lessen children’s exposure to the media containing negative content and to make children capable that they can do the critical examination of the content they view on television. These strategic approaches are respectively known as repressive and sprightly media monitoring approaches (Anderson & Bushman, 2001).
Rasmussen (2013) demonstrated that the domain of parental media supervision and co-viewing would reap the fruits by using a more specified conceptual approach. Repressive media monitoring includes limiting the time devotion towards media such as watching more television, playing video games as well as implementing specific rules including which type of content should be viewed by children.
We can say that the most popular parental approach is the repressive media monitoring approach (Rideout et al., 2010; Valkenburg, Piotrowski, Hermanns, & de Leeuw, 2013). Restrictive or repressive media monitoring approach is helpful in lowering the negative repercussions resulting from media consumption in early childhood (Nathanson, 1999), on the other hand, few studies resulted in different and contradictory findings (Vandewater, Park, Huang, & Wartella, 2005). Repressive media monitoring approach has a positive effect on children in lowering the chance and possibility of developing a sense of sexual activity at an early age (Fisher et al., 2009), it depresses the levels of abusive, aggressive and violent behavior (Nathanson, 2001).
Active or sprightly media monitoring approach includes a parent-children discussion of media-content with the purpose of preparing children to become fair-minded viewers of media (Strasburger, Wilson, & Jordan, 2009). By articulating, exploring, and adding to concepts created by media, guardians and parents are able to grow children’s understanding of what he or she is consuming by viewing television (Nathanson, 2001).
To answer the questions rose on the inconsistency of sprightly monitoring used in the stoppage of sexual activities (Fisher et al., 2009; Guo & Nathanson, 2011). Collier (2015) concluded that sprightly monitoring results in a little but has a notable and positive influence on kids.
Numerous researches have shown that sprightly media monitoring is directly linked to the reduction of aggressive behavior and strengthening of pro-social behavior and altruism (Linder & Werner, 2012; Nathanson, 1999; Singer et al., 1998; Valkenburg et al., 2013).
1.4 Development of pro-social behavior by utilizing media
Children can figure out from screening television some particular behaviors but besides this, they learn ideas, concepts, and manners that will control their behavior in their lives (Gerbner et al.,1980; Murray, 1980; Palmer & Dorr, 1980). Rushton (1982) identified pro-social behavior as an act that may be socially advantageous and whereupon some extent benefits anothers at large.
Harris (1999) claimed that media has a considerable amount of capabilities for the production of pro-social behavior. Potter and Ware (1989) examined pro-social plays on television. They concluded that 20.2% of pro-social plays are broadcasted per hour on heterogeneous television programs.
Yet, the investigators noticed that real comedy shows did not exhibit numerous pro-social actions in comparison to other types of television shows such as movies, drama, and series.
Furthermore, researchers pointed out that pro-social plays were often shown as internal motivation and incentives like prizes, awards and money. Similarly, heroes are commonly shown having more pro-social behaviors as compared to villains.
A pro-social attitude is affiliated with so many positive developments in children, including academic achievement, healthy psychological performance and strong peer relationships are developed (Williamson, 2013)
1.5 Effect of media on children’s altruism
El Sayed (2003) conducted a study on “Bakkar” one of the most popular Egyptian cartoons, broadcasted in the holy month of Ramadan. Bakkar first played on-screen in 1998 for almost nine years and then faced the some challenges in 2007 in the production of this show.
The series restarted again in 2015. A survey study was conducted and content analysis was done to find out the impact of values and norms that are characterized in “Bakkar” and what has it’s the effect on children behavior and altruism.
The sample selected for the study was composed of children from age 5-6. And almost all children have watched the series of Bakkar. Things that attracted children in this show were his appear, his name, his clothes, his talking way, his way of dealing people, his problem solving techniques, his stories, his manners and his sense of humor.
These factors concluded that children were attracted by cartoons physical appearance and their behavior. The character of cartoon is the main thing that attracts the viewer whereas content and messeges comes after.
The study analyzed that only 2% of the children liked negative characters too such as Samaan and Mashrat. The character of cartoon is all responsible in developing altruism in children as Jaan cartoon.
Regardless of the increasing popularity of other electronic media, television still gained much attention of many families. However, television covers the substantial amount of time in households, especially families with young children. During the earliest time of television, people usually placed it in living-rooms, and the entire family sits around the television and this was considered as the most popular family event. An ordinary family had only one television set with limited package of channels and in those days mostly the programs were not for a certain age group, rather they were family-oriented. With the invention of satellite network and cable more channels were discovered and unlimited number of choices of cable channels became available to the viewing audience (Paik, 2001). In 2009, Brigitte discovered that with the growing time the amount of sexual content and violence on media has increased, for parents it has never been much important to keep an eye on their little children and get involved in the use of electronic media. Many countries still dont have any appropriate kind of media legislation policy. Therefore, the parents must keep their eyes on children media and save their children from inappropriate multi-media content.
Parents are conscious and concerned about their children’s media usage, specially the use of television. A large scale of research was conducted by “Kaiser Family Foundation” which reported that, undoubtedly parents were highly concerned about the inappropriate exposure of media to their children (Rideout, 2007). Generally speaking parents are less worried about the children spending time on the screen and are more concerned about the inappropriate content such as violence, nudism, sexual themes, and obscene language (Woodard & Gridina, 2000). Americanization of cultures had a great concern about this inappropriate media content as television programs produced by American are covering a considerable percentage of local media markets and basic concern is about the availability of unsuitable content like violence, profanation and sex (Fass, 2007, Lemish, 2007).
Many researchers analyzed the influence of cartoons on primary school children. The researchers picked up the sample from one school of Gujrat, Pakistan. A cultivation effect theory was employed by researchers in their study. Survey method technique was used by them for their paper and questionnaire was adopted for gathering data. The results found that children are psychologically and physically affected by cartoon shows. Those children who are not properly handled and controlled seemed badly affected. Children turned more aggressive and violent. Young children commonly love to watch cartoon, they spent much of their time on screen and as a result it consumes their much time. Cartoons influences childrens language too. And children are imitating such style and wordings which are so inappropriate. (Yousaf Dr. Zahir, Shehzad Munham & Hassan S. Ali, 2015)
Children also learn good deeds by watching cartoon. They imitate their favorite characters and act like them to get rewarded. Young children have no knowledge of outer world and fantasies cartoons as a real world which leads to the development of both positive and negative behavior in them. Adult co-viewing has a great impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism. As the parents and other family members are available to guide them by explaining the positive and negative impact of actions shown in cartoons and encourage them to learn good manners. A trait of altruism is developed in children by watching cartoons like Doraemon, Jaan cartoon and many other cartoons. Altruism is a normative act, individual seems to be selfless having such trait and are always willing to help others. Any individual who is altruistic wishes to benefit his fellows and tries to aid those who are in need. They are charitable and share their gifts with others. They are very cooperative and support other to achieve their goals. According to Ferrington, media literacy discussed by Renee Hobbs states that just for the sake of media-technology can be harnessed by our children, it does not mean that they can effectively evaluate and criticize the informational messages by media. They need to study some special skills when addressing the information they experience through media. Media literacy consists of such skills that will help make value judgments about media message. Parents who lack media knowledge put their children in a more fragile and vulnerable situation as parental supervision proved to be useful for children to unlearn negative and adverse media material influence. The media knowledge of the parents helps children to make a distinction between fantasy and actuality. Young childrens experience with unsupervised multimedia-content may result in their perplexed judgment on many problems and questions (Ferrington, 2006).
With an adequacy of large number of guardians and parents are worried about the screen time and media content viewed by their children, and the most important question is how to examine and evaluate the supervision techniques of media control implemented by parents? How many families are participating actively in media monitoring? It is closely related to the consciousness of parents that how, when, where and with whom their children spend their television hours (Bersamin et al., 2008).
Media literacy and system of classification defined by supervising authorities are taken into consideration on the basis of its negative effects on the audience, including other factors like promoting nudism, sex and usage of drugs among young children. Media literacy and measurement systems were developed to safeguard the childhood of a kid who cannot take decisions all by himself. Childhood is not more or less belonging to a particular age group neither it is related to the mental, social and physical development of a child. A child is the one who is known by his innocence and parents deliberately makes effort to safeguard their child from young age obscene material, because child might be unable to understand it properly and find itself confused and confounded. Indeed, there is absolutely no single aspect of adulthood, whether it is promiscuousness, perverseness, degrading and confusion that seems beyond the purview of todays children (Hill, 2011).
Parents can play a significant role in lowering media risks and increasing the beneficial impacts by appropriately using their controlling tricks. Parents can strengthen pro-social behavior in their children specially when watching a television show with their little ones by explaining and outlining the negative and positive messages. Parents can also establish a critical approach to keep children safe from many unhealthy media messages related to rape, violence, teenage sex, and other antisocial activities. A study by Nathanson and Cantor concluded that girls acted more aggressively as compared to boys (Nathanson & Cantor, 2000).
The most primary and crucial social influence in pre-adolescents life is their family, specifically the mother who is their first teacher. Family morphological factors such as family size, marital status of parents and family’s social status in society influences the behavior pattern of their children. Other factors are parent-child interaction including ways of communication, how parents reinforce their children by giving rewards and punishment and the way of showing affection by hugging and cuddling. To these extensive parameters can be added many elements particularly related to television: first is the parental impact over the child’s viewing such as, censoring of individual programs, limiting the viewing time of children and encouraging their children to view other informative shows. Second is the comprehension and understanding of the child towards television content e.g., parental intellectual comments about media content. Third is the acceptance of media content by child e.g., how parents affectively response and comment on content especially their expression of approving and criticizing and linking it to child’s life- portrait (Bryan & London, 1970).
Many psychologists (Mussen, P., & Rutherford, E. 1961, Berkowitz, L. 1962) investigated the impact of aggressive cartoons. They claimed that the children who watch cartoons especially related to the violence and aggressiveness are more likely to tend towards barbarity and violence. And the results conclude that children who view more violence shows are likely to become early aggressive as compared to those who don’t watch such acts.
Dr. A. G. Sudha (2001) investigated the numerous tranquillizing influences of cartoon on children’s life and the prominent change in the behavior and actions of children. The examiner conducted a study and selected a boy (Salem) as a sample. For his study Sudha applied multi-stage sampling technique and for data gathering database and field-survey technique was used. The results obtained show that children are obsessed with cartoons and they can’t be controlled to watch less television because they like to spend their significant time in front of screen. Sudha discovered that screening cartoons mostly influences the children between the age (6-11) who are in their late childhood as compared to the teenagers and the reasons of applied influence on the young children are gender, time period utilizing while watching television, age, siblings and family standard that affected their behavior much. These behavioral changes make them insensitive, idly, violent, rude and harsh.
Other Pakistani researchers Maqsood, Umera, Amer and Qurat-ul-ain (2014) demonstrated the effect of multicultural cartoons on early childhood. They declared that cross-cultural cartoons are first and foremost sources of destroying the moral, holy and spiritual values of children and also being affecting the health, language, habits, social and cultural behavior. According to these researchers children brain is wet clay” and they can be molded without a hitch in any shape whatever we want to designate. Therefore, children mind strikes easily by the violence and aggression shown in cartoons and they highly affects the moral and ethnic values of children by showing fictional characters and stories. As a consequence of these factors the children frequently imitate their favorite animated characters and mostly use the same words as their favorite character utters. And even many times fantasies themselves as their favorite animation character in their future way of living. Cartoon characters perceived in the young age of children gradually becomes a part of their sub-consciousness and make them upset in later life as he/she faces problem in accepting the reality of life. This causes obstruction in the maturation of children cognitive, physical, social, psychological, moral and ethnic proficiencies. Researchers conducted the interview of parents who lived in Islamabad for their study’s data collection. Thus, their research paper concluded that The cross-cultural cartoons are significantly influencing the young children of Pakistan. Pakistan being a Muslim country has a great difference in culture, morals, norms and values as compared to other Countries like India and America. Our religion is different from others. And it is found that the viewers of intercultural cartoons are rapidly increasing in Pakistan.
Albert Bandura (1971) formulated a Social Learning Theory (SLT) and later it was changed into Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). He made suggestions that children’s behavior can be influenced by the observation of cost-reward emergency situation in association with others behavior. Whereas direct reinforcement is not an essential requirement for learning, this approach is found to be attractive to investigators for evaluating the effects of television characters on children. Examination of characters (models) influence viewers in two broad ways: number one through the adaptation of new behavioral patterns, and number two through the motivation, by performing and not performing such behaviors which are already in the viewer’s repositories. Major operations are motivation, attention and retention, and other functions are learning through observation, individuals learns the new ways of organizing the pieces of information being transmitted and ways of responding new behavior patterns. A large impact occurs, when models and actions are supposed to be realistic by children and they started to believe that such things are real. And they perceive that actions and characters in the show are actual and fantasies those cook and bull stories. And when the children view how the models are positively and strongly reinforced, children select those behaviors which are rewarded and try to imitate those behaviors which help them to obtain identical rewards. And when children gets motivated for being aggressive as the model and accepts it as a dominating trait because children learns that moral and ethical inhibitions can be neglected when he/she get a valid reason that this act is not harmful. And when attention and retention are provoked as children learn more when they want to give attention to something and they usually pay attention to those things which they like and started to repeat it for storing it in memory (Bandura, 1971;1973). McLeod, Atkin and Chaffee (1972) proposed that the toxic influence of television can be decreased when parents realize that violent acts are unrealistic and unbearable.
2.1 Rationale of the study
This study is significant for both parents and children as the use of media is global and everyone is using it without noticing its effect on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism. Parents are the first teacher of children especially mother, who teaches them the right and wrong. It is the responsibility of parents to keep their eye on children while watching media content. Apart from cartoons there is other media as well displayed on channels and parents are not aware what their children are viewing and how badly this will affect their behavior. Parents must act as a partner and as well as a mentor in guiding children the bad effects of negative content. Parents must have knowledge of what their children are doing in their lives.
This study will make parents aware of the dangerous effects of media on children’s behavior and in which activities do their children are involved. Mostly adults prefer separate rooms and they use to watch negative acts at their friends places. These activities would give birth to the other major crimes and in this way children become delinquent. . This study will enable the parents to know the pros and cons of childrens media content on childrens pro-social behavior and altruism. Further this study will make adults aware that they should guard their children about the use media.
The present will make children conscious about the after effects of negative media content and how badly it will impact their lives. Apart from disadvantages of media children and parents will come to know the advantages of media content. Parents will be able to settle a specific time limit for viewing television. Children will able to critically analyze either the media is appropriate or not. And by watching positive media content children will be able to exhibit positive behavior and a sense of altruism will be developed in them
This study will also benefit the administration in designing curriculum for children. As children at young age prefer animation and they love to view and learn through animated series. This will help curriculum developers to add animated pictures so children get attracted and enjoy learning. And curriculum development may ask school management to include movie day in their co-curricular activities for children so they can relax their minds and have fun during study time. This will boost children mind and they will learn much faster and quicker as learning by the use of multimedia stays for longer as compared to discussion method.
2.2 Objectives of the study
Following are the major objectives of study:
To identify the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism.
To investigate the impact of adult co-viewing along with childrens media consumption on childrens pro-social behavior and altruism.
2.3 Hypotheses of the study
H1. If adults will co-view media with children then this will have a positive impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism.
H2. Children’s media content consumption will have a great impact on their pro-social behavior and altruism.
This survey study aims to explore the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media content on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism. To find the applicable methods and strategies for this study various steps were taken. Here are the following research methodologies adopted for this present study as under:
3.1 Research design
This study is descriptive in nature so, a survey method was designed to know the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media content on their pro-social behavior and altruism. Online survey method was selected as due to the Covid-19 Pandemic situation.
By using convenience sampling technique only 30 children were selected for this study between the ages of 8-10. This sampling technique was chosen because it was accessible for the researcher to contact them and only available adults (parents) of 30 children were selected for online survey.
3.3 Instruments of the study
A questionnaire based on five point Likert rating scale was selected for this study. The five options of each statement were: SD (Strongly Disagree) 1-SA (Strongly Agree).
3.4 Data collection procedure
A questionnaire was developed for this quantitative research study. Questionnaire was composed of three sets of statements, each having five questions. The survey questionnaire contains total 15 statements. The statements were based on the children’s media content: Jaan Cartoon (without adult co-viewing), Tom and Jerry (without adult co-viewing) and Doraemon (with adult co-viewing). Adults (parents) of children were asked to co-view one set of cartoons (Doraemon) with their children for 1 hour and observe the reaction and action of their children. The other two set were of 3 hours, 1 and half hour for each set of cartoon. And parents’ respond the statements to know the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media content on their pro-social behavior and altruism through online survey.
This chapter includes findings of the study with their corresponding figures which shows the relationship between variables.
The data was analyzed in the following ways:
4.1 Demographic Information of the children being studied
Figure1. Age of Children
Age of the children selected for this present study was 8-10 years.
The above analysis of figure 1 shows that out of 30 children the sample of study, 60% (18) children were between the age of 8-9 and the remaining 40% (12) were 9-10 years old children.
If adults will co-view media with children then this will have a positive impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism.
4.2 Statement-wise Analysis
Statement wise analysis was done by analyzing the response of adults (parents) towards each statement of online survey questionnaire. A questionnaire consisting of 15 statements were administered to adults online and asked them to give genuine responses. Each statements frequency was calculated by rate of occurrence. Mean of the statements were also calculated by the formula mentioned below. The norm of acceptance or rejection of the statements was 3.00, which shows that the adults agree on this statement and reflects their positive attitude towards a statement whereas, the value of mean score less than 3.00 shows disagreement of adults towards the statement and reflects negative attitude towards the statement. The applied formula to calculate mean score is given below:
5*SA+4*A+3*U+2*D+1*SD /30 (total number of sample)
The responses of the parents after co-viewing with their children are as follows:
The first set of cartoons is the Doraemon cartoon which was performed through adult co-viewing and parents were involved in this set.
The above figure 2 shows the analysis of the responses of parents after co-viewing with their children one set of cartoons (Doraemon) for 1 hour. The parents’ observe children actions while co-viewing and responded that negative factors of media content doesn’t have a wrong impact on their children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as parents guided them right manners and the value of mean is 3 which means parents attitude towards adult co-viewing was positive.
This figure 3 demonstrates that parents showed positive response towards adult co-viewing and its impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 3.6 which is greater than norm value of mean 3.
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards adult co-viewing and its impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as SD is 12%, D is 15%, U is 0, A is 33% and SA is 30% and the value of mean is 3.6 which shows the positive attitude of parents towards this study as mean value is greater than 3.
This figure shows that parents showed negative response towards adult co-viewing and its impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean less than 3. The results show that children were not affected by the negative actions of cartoon and parents reflect negative attitude towards this statement.
This figure represents that parents showed negative response towards adult co-viewing and its impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean less than 3. Children are also aware of the fake creatures as they are observers of nature and parents guide them too about the npn-existing elements.
Children’s media content consumption will have a great impact on their pro-social behavior and altruism.
The other two sets were viewed by children separately and this session was about 3 hours.
Figur7. Jaan cartoon
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 4.16 greater than 3.
Figure8. Jaan cartoon
Figure reflects that parents’ showed negative response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is less than 3. Although this set was performed without adult co-viewing but the negative factor doesnt affected child behavior much.
Figure9. Jaan cartoon
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 3.83 greater than 3. This shows that children learn good manners fast as compared to the bad manners.
Figure10. Jaan cartoon
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 3.8 greater than 3. This shows that children learn good deeds much faster as compared to the bad one.
Figure11. Jaan cartoon
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 3.5 greater than 3. Children loves their families and friends more as they are not aware of the other relations and for them family is the only strong relation in this world.
Figure12. Tom & Jerry
This figure reflects that parents’ showed negative response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is less than 3.
Figure13. Tom & Jerry
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 3.9 greater than 3.
Figure14. Tom & Jerry
This figure reflects that parents’ showed negative response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is less than 3.
Figur15. Tom & Jerry
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 3.3 greater than 3.
Figure 16: Tom & Jerry
This figure reflects that parents’ showed positive response towards the impact of children’s media consumption on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as the value of mean is 3.2 greater than 3.
4.3 Overall Statement-wise Analysis
Figure 17. Overall statement-wise analysis
The figure 17 results show that on 66.6% statement, mean value was greater than 3.00 and whereas on 33.3% statements mean value was less than 3.00. This means adult co-viewing and children’s media has positive impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism.
Discussion and Conclusion
No such studies have ever been designed to investigate the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media in Pakistan. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism. As parents and other family members in Pakistan think that by watching television children will get busy and they can do their household chores easily without any disturbance. Despite the disadvantages of watching TV alone parents in Pakistan don’t pay much attention on effects of media on children. And they believe co-viewing has no impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism.
Family attachments in Asian countries especially in Pakistan are much deeper, closer and stronger as compared to West European societies. Family is the most important socializing component in every childs formative years so analyzing co-viewing patterns of television and other electronic media in a predominantly rural society is a subject of serious concern (Huston & Right, 1996). Results received from family co-viewing television programs practiced in western countries are quite different from results acquired through the researches done in Pakistan. Mostly children above 7 don’t like to watch their favorite television program with family members and other mature children hardly co-view television with their parents and siblings (Roberts & Foehr, 2004). Research studies of European countries showed different findings in comparison with other world studies. Children loves to watch television with their mother and enjoys her company too and some children likes to watch TV with their siblings and other family members, but most of the children still prefer to view television alone (Pasquier, 2001). Throughout the week children spend round about 3 hours daily watching television but on the other hand they watch even more than three hours during weekends and the interesting factoid is that their educational commitments doesn’t put any pressure on them to lessen their daily screening hours (Cardoza, 2010).
The main purpose of this study was to make parents aware of children’s media usage and its impact on them, both positive and negative impact. For this purpose a study was conducted and an online survey questionnaire was administered to parents to check their response towards the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism. The parents were asked to co-view one set of cartoons and response the statements. After co-viewing children media content the parents respond that there is a great impact of adult co-viewing on children as when adults sit together while watching they explain the pros and cons of media content and try to show the positive side of viewed TV shows. Parents control the violation and aggression being developed in children after watching such serials. Parents also stop children from using abusive language as they think they might look cool. They help in the regression of negative behavior being developed in children. Children absorb everything fast and if they have a guardian to guard them right a positive change in their behavior can be measured. Parental-guidance helps in the development of pro-social behavior and altruism in children. But on the other hand when children enter teenage they become so curious about the negative media content and tries to explore it by spending time at friends home. And this exploration results in the dangerous effects of media content. Children starts to hide things from parents as they reach teenage. And such habits may lead to harmful pyschological factors as in “Doraemon” the character “Nobita” is based on a real story of boy whose name was Nobita he was suffering from disease called “Schizophrenia” and he use to imagine “Doraemon” a non-existing creature and assumes him his friend as other children in school makes fun of him and he committed suicide at the age of 16 due to bad mental health.
The use of media content in Pakistan is common and parents need to be literate about the media consumption by children. This study was done to make parents aware about media impact on their children’s pro-social behavior and altruism. Behavior and altruism are such things which can easily be examined in someone’s personality even with just simple observation. Likewise parents can also monitor the viewing patterns of children and instruct them the advantages and disadvantages of media content. This study concluded results in different ways to measure the impact of adult co-viewing and children’s media content on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism. First the demographic information of children shows that 18 children were between the age of 8-9 and remaining 12 were 9-10 years old. Statement-wise analysis was done for both the hypotheses which concluded that adult co-viewing with children has a positive impact on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism as parents guide them while watching cartoons either this act is good or bad. A guardian has an important role in leading the children towards right path and making them comfortable with their presence and discussing every scene in friendly manner so child don’t feel embarrass.
And the result of impact of children’s media content on children’s pro-social behavior and altruism shows that children pick things quickly and try to learn good deed through cartoons even without adult co-viewing. Children get motivated for doing good acts when they are reinforced by giving prizes or even just appreciation. And parents concluded that children try to help their sibling as they are inspired by Jaan cartoon as Jaan helps his siblings and friends. In Tom and Jerry they fight with each other but when other loafer dogs tease them they become friends and help each other. And in Doraemon Nobita” helps his friends that’s why parents were asked to view these programs so they can easily conclude the observation. The results of overall statement-wise analysis shows that on 66.6% statements parents showed positive response and on 33.3% statements parents showed negative response. The results of present study concluded that no doubt there is a huge impact of adult co-viewing and childrens media content on childrens pro-social behavior and altruism. As children learn media much faster through TV, laptops, I pads etc. Learning through viewing is more effective than hearing as human beings learn 70% through viewing and 30% by hearing. Media content places a permanent mark on children behavior and altruism so, parents must look after their children actions because they try to imitate those characters and behave like that with their siblings. It is the utmost duty of parents to observe the prominent changes in their children behavior. Children might feel uncomfortable while watching any bad scene while co-viewing with adults and this will make him realize that it’s a bad habit in this way children try to avoid watching vulgar scenes.
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|1||Teasing of Gian to Nobita in “Doraemon” creates perception of power misuse/abuse in your children?|
|2||The flexing (showing-off) trait of Soniyo makes children proudy?|
|3||Does the bond between Nobita and Shizuka aware the opposite gender affections and relationships information to your children?|
|4||A love, hatred and jealousy factor shown in Doraemon impacts your children behavior?|
|5||Unimaginable use of gadgets makes your children live in fancy world?|
|6||Greeting elders in “Jaan cartoon” teaches your children religious morals and ethics?|
|7||Does your child try to torture their sibling and friend as Jaan’s friend?|
|8||Your children help out their siblings as Jaan, Marium and Murad?|
|9||Do your children learn good deeds by watching “Jaan cartoon”?|
|10||“Jaan cartoon” teaches your children the importance of family and love for them?|
|Tom and Jerry|
|11||Watching explosions, gunshots and weapons in Tom & Jerry makes your children agressive?|
|12||The helping nature of Tom & Jerry builds a sense of altruism in your children?|
|13||Does the violation in Tom & Jerry makes your child less sensitive to violence?|
|14||The romantic scene between Tom and Toodles Galore(female white cat) makes your children uncomfortable while watching TV?|
|15||Does your child fight with their siblings after watching Tom & Jerry fights?|